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I'd rather be a cyborg than a goddess
Donna J. Haraway

Bionics seeks to transcend our biological nature by replacing biological parts with artificial parts ("deflesh"), or by translating the human mind into information in a computer (Uploading ). These processes are naturally highly speculative so far, since we are still far from this technological level. However, in the field of connecting artificial limbs and other systems to nerves, some promising advances have already happened or seem probable in the near future.


Neural Interfaces
EEG and EMG Interfaces
Other Sites
See Also



Functional Mods and Antique Rockers by Read Write Execute (Ron Hale-Evans).
The Desire to Be Wired by Gareth Branwyn (Wired 1.4). About the visions of bionics and the reality right now. A much needed dose of realism. There is also a text version at EFF
The Future of Bionics (Wired Reality Check)
Biosculpting, a posting by Phillip Thorne in sci.nanotech. Gives an idea of what transhumans and posthumans may eventually look like.
Computers in Your Brain by Marc Perkel. About how a computer neurally interfaced with the brain could be useful.
Cyborg Page. Links to cyborg information, both technological, philosophical and postmodern.
Declaration of Interdependence (Wired). About the history and changes of the cyborg concept.
"Superhumans & Bionics" Guide & Resources. Educational resources for Scientific American Frontiers.
Artificial Organs: Building the Bionic Body. A good overview of artificial organs with links.
Artificial cells and organs research centre at McGill University. Especially about blood substitutes.


Microchip has potential to restore lost vision. Article about the MIT retinal implant project.
Building an Eye by Steve Alan Edwards.
Sight for Poor Eyes: Hard-Wiring the Retina (Wired).
Bioelectronic Vision IEEE Spectrum special report (May 1996). An overview of visual prosthetics.
Retinal Implant Project at MIT. An attempt to overcome retinosis pigmentosa by implanting electrodes in the retina linked to a chip receiving signals from an external camera.
Retina Implant News in Bonn
Vision Chips, or Seeing Silicon
Retinal Prosthesis Project at Johns Hopkins.


Cochlear Implants: Restoring Hearing to the Deaf by Donald K. Eddington, Ph.D. and Michael L. Pierschalla (On the Brain, Fall 1994 Volume 3, Number 4). Popular introduction to the use of cochelar implants.
Cochlear Implants: My Perspective by William F. House, D.D.S., M.D. A monograph about cochelar implants, which covers their history, function and use.

Neural Interface

Head Start by Samuel Greengard (Wirted 5.02). Article about Theodore Berger and neurointerfaces.
Plugging into the brain (University of Southern California Chrinicle). About the research of Dr. Theodore Berger.
Mind Readings , article in Scientific American June 1996. About deciphering brain signals to determine movement.
A Silicon Chip with a Lot of Nerve from Science News, 8/26/95.
Artificial Sensations (Article about giving a prosthesis a sense of touch, from Technology Review October 1994).
Neural-Electronics Interface and Microengineered Neural Signal Transducer Development by Danny Banks. Reading neural signals using microprobes.
INTER Home Page (Intelligent Neural inTERface). Development of\ implantable bidirectional neural microsystems based on letting nerves grow through perforated silicon dies.
Intelligent Limbs, a very brief presentation of the INTER project and its results.
Synopsis of INTER.
Cortical Control of Neural Prosthetics at BITC.
Cortical Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation by Feng Wang. An overview of how cortical signals could be used to control muscles through FES (and presumably bionic implants?).
Mike Maher's Neurochip Page at Pine Lab.
The Nerve Chip: technology development for a chronic neural interface by Gregory TA Kovacs, MD, PhD.
On designing a Brain-Computer Interface by Andrew Wright.
The Brain-Computer Interface: Techniques for Controlling Machines by Richard H.C. Seabrook.
Electrical-Neural Interface as Pertaining to Virtual Reality by Thad Starner.
Bioengineering: Neuroprosthetics and Computer Modeling. The research interests of Harmony Baldwin.
Professor Theodore W. Berger
Bionic Technologies Inc.. Development and manufacturing of neural electrodes.
The Brain Computer Interface. Introductory links to sources of information on the Web about Brain-Computer Interfaces.
Caltech scientists devise first neurochip (Oct 27 1997). Growing neurons on a chip, enabling signals to be sent and received.

EEG and EMG Interfaces

Från Tanke till handling by Cecilia Lindemalm (in Swedish) from Datateknik. Discusses the current knowledge of BCI.
Controlling Computers With Neural Signals by Hugh S. Lusted and R. Benjamin Knapp (Scientific American October 1996).
Developments in Neural Human-System Interface Design Current developments in the field.
# Myoelectrical Signal Recognition using Genetic Programming by Jamie J. Fernandez. Abstract of a thesis.
EEG-based Computer Interface research at the ASEL Speech Research Program. Using the P300 evoked potential to give totally paralyzed people the ability to signal.
EEG data processing with neural networks. Web contact points in this area of research.
Parallelization of Neural Network Training for On-line Biosignal Processing
Brainmaster. A low-cost EEG system being developed on the net.
Phantom Touch: Imbuing a prosthesis with manual dexterity (Scientific American Oct 98)
Biofeedback control a la Dr Fun
Tiny implant enables paralyzed man to control computer with thoughts (Reuters 1998).
Look Ma, No Hands by Tech. Sgt. Pat McKenna (Airman). On controlling aeroplanes with the brain.
Brain Computer Interface Project at Department of Engineering Science at Oxford University. A very good overview of the subject.


New Artificial Knee May Be As Good As the Real Thing
Biomaterials: Body Parts of the Future by Cheryl R. Blanchard, Ph.D. About the past, present and near future of biomaterials.
Biocompatible Materials Science
Engineering Human Tissue by Steve Alan Edwards. About tissue engineering, how to grow new tissues in vitro and the (mostly bureaucratic) problems with the process.
Growing new Organs by David J. Mooney and Antonios G. Mikos (Scientific American).
Biomaterials Research Page. Many links to biomaterials research around the world.
Scientists build living breasts by Lois Rogers (Sunday Times Jan 4 1998)

Stem Cells

The Troubled Hunt for the Ultimate Cell . By Antonio Regalado (Technology Review July/Augus 1998). The problems with embryonic stem cell research.
Embryonic Stem Cells Debut Amid Little Media Attention by Ricki Lewis (The Scientist, Vol:11, #19, p. 1,4, September 29, 1997)


Artificial Muscle Project at MIT. More intended for robot applications, but possibly useful in bionics.

Other Sites

Brain-Computer Interface Ring


See also

Self Transformation Page
Surgery Page
Trans- and Posthuman page

Anders Sandberg /