I'd rather be a cyborg than a goddess
Donna J. Haraway
Bionics seeks to transcend our
biological nature by replacing biological parts with artificial parts
("deflesh"), or by
translating the human mind into information in a computer (Uploading
). These processes are naturally highly speculative so far, since we are
still far from this technological level. However, in the field of connecting
artificial limbs and other systems to nerves, some promising advances
have already happened or seem probable in the near future.
EEG and EMG Interfaces
Mods and Antique Rockers by Read Write Execute (Ron Hale-Evans).
Desire to Be Wired by Gareth Branwyn (Wired 1.4). About the visions
of bionics and the reality right now. A much needed dose of realism. There
is also a text
version at EFF
of Bionics (Wired Reality Check)
Biosculpting, a posting by Phillip Thorne
in sci.nanotech. Gives an idea of what transhumans and posthumans may
eventually look like.
Computers in Your Brain by Marc Perkel. About
how a computer neurally interfaced with the brain could be useful.
Cyborg Page. Links
to cyborg information, both technological, philosophical and postmodern.
of Interdependence (Wired). About the history and changes of the cyborg
& Bionics" Guide & Resources. Educational resources for Scientific
Organs: Building the Bionic Body. A good overview of artificial organs
Artificial cells and organs
research centre at McGill University. Especially about blood substitutes.
potential to restore lost vision. Article about the MIT retinal implant
Eye by Steve Alan Edwards.
for Poor Eyes: Hard-Wiring the Retina (Wired).
Vision IEEE Spectrum special report (May 1996). An overview of visual
Retinal Implant Project
at MIT. An attempt to overcome retinosis pigmentosa by implanting electrodes
in the retina linked to a chip receiving signals from an external camera.
News in Bonn
Chips, or Seeing Silicon
Prosthesis Project at Johns Hopkins.
Implants: Restoring Hearing to the Deaf by Donald K. Eddington, Ph.D.
and Michael L. Pierschalla (On
the Brain, Fall 1994 Volume 3, Number 4). Popular introduction
to the use of cochelar implants.
Implants: My Perspective by William F. House, D.D.S., M.D. A monograph
about cochelar implants, which covers their history, function and use.
by Samuel Greengard (Wirted 5.02). Article about Theodore Berger and neurointerfaces.
into the brain (University of Southern California Chrinicle). About
the research of Dr. Theodore Berger.
, article in Scientific American
June 1996. About deciphering brain signals to determine movement.
A Silicon Chip with a
Lot of Nerve from Science News, 8/26/95.
Sensations (Article about giving a prosthesis a sense of touch, from
Review October 1994).
Interface and Microengineered
Neural Signal Transducer Development by Danny
Banks. Reading neural signals using microprobes.
Home Page (Intelligent Neural inTERface). Development of\ implantable
bidirectional neural microsystems based on letting nerves grow through
perforated silicon dies.
Limbs, a very brief presentation of the INTER project and its results.
Control of Neural Prosthetics at BITC.
Control of Functional Electrical Stimulation by Feng Wang. An overview
of how cortical signals could be used to control muscles through FES
(and presumably bionic implants?).
Neurochip Page at Pine
The Nerve Chip:
technology development for a chronic neural interface by Gregory TA
Kovacs, MD, PhD.
On designing a Brain-Computer
Interface by Andrew Wright.
The Brain-Computer Interface: Techniques for Controlling Machines
by Richard H.C. Seabrook.
Interface as Pertaining to Virtual Reality by Thad Starner.
Neuroprosthetics and Computer Modeling. The research interests of
Theodore W. Berger
Bionic Technologies Inc.. Development
and manufacturing of neural electrodes.
Computer Interface. Introductory links to sources of information on
the Web about Brain-Computer Interfaces.
scientists devise first neurochip (Oct 27 1997). Growing neurons on
a chip, enabling signals to be sent and received.
EEG and EMG Interfaces
till handling by Cecilia Lindemalm (in Swedish) from Datateknik.
Discusses the current knowledge of BCI.
With Neural Signals by Hugh S. Lusted and R. Benjamin Knapp (Scientific
American October 1996).
Developments in Neural
Human-System Interface Design Current developments in the field.
Recognition using Genetic Programming by Jamie J. Fernandez. Abstract
of a thesis.
Computer Interface research at the ASEL
Speech Research Program. Using the P300 evoked potential to give totally
paralyzed people the ability to signal.
data processing with neural networks. Web contact points in this area
of Neural Network Training for On-line Biosignal Processing
Brainmaster. A low-cost EEG
system being developed on the net.
Touch: Imbuing a prosthesis with manual dexterity (Scientific American
control a la Dr Fun
implant enables paralyzed man to control computer with thoughts (Reuters
Ma, No Hands by Tech. Sgt. Pat McKenna (Airman). On controlling
aeroplanes with the brain.
Computer Interface Project at Department of Engineering Science at
Oxford University. A very good overview of the subject.
Knee May Be As Good As the Real Thing
Body Parts of the Future by Cheryl R. Blanchard, Ph.D. About the past,
present and near future of biomaterials.
Human Tissue by Steve Alan Edwards. About tissue engineering, how
to grow new tissues in vitro and the (mostly bureaucratic) problems with
new Organs by David J. Mooney and Antonios G. Mikos (Scientific
Research Page. Many links to biomaterials research around the world.
build living breasts by Lois Rogers (Sunday Times Jan 4 1998)
Hunt for the Ultimate Cell . By Antonio Regalado (Technology Review
July/Augus 1998). The problems with embryonic stem cell research.
Stem Cells Debut Amid Little Media Attention by Ricki Lewis (The
Scientist, Vol:11, #19, p. 1,4, September 29, 1997)
Muscle Project at MIT. More intended for robot applications, but possibly
useful in bionics.
Trans- and Posthuman page