Complexity and Artificial
As our technology develops, it will become more and more complex. Currently
we design our systems from scratch, and unexpected emergent features are
usually regarded as bad. But in order to deal with, and to control, the
complex world we live in, our technology has to be able to evolve, adapt
and repair itself. This will be especially needed in the areas of nanotechnology
and advanced computing.
It is quite possible that future technology will be indistinguishable
from life, both in complexity, flexibility and unpredictability. We will
have to sacrifice rigid control over it in exchange for increased subtility,
as Kevin Kelly suggests in Out
of Control. In many cases technology will design and grow itself.
And it will have the beauty and mystery of organic shape.
Models of Morphogenesis: A Guided Tour. A fine example of the organic
complexity even simple systems can produce.
Genetic Programming Tutorial
Out of Control
by Kevin Kelly. Book about how technology is moving more and more towards
a complex networked "lifelike" structure rather than oldfashioned
control and hierarchy.
in Large Populations of Mobile Robots by Cem
Ünsal. This has, beside the obvious applications for robotics, interesting
applications for nanotechnology.
Karl Sims Retrospective. Karl
Sims has evolved virtual plants and animals. A nice demonstration
of that genetic algorithms can evolve new solutions.
The Tierra Project. An
experiment to create a net-wide ecosystem of digital life.
Societies by Peter Tyson (Technology Review). About how artificial
life methods could be used to turn economics and sociology into experimental
The Nature of Autonomous Agents and the Worlds they Mutually Create
by Stuart A. Kauffman. "The material below is not yet science. However,
it is serious "protoscience" -- an attempt to formulate questions
and concepts that may, in due course, become serious science."
to Complexity Engineering S. Wolfram: Physica D, 22 (October
1986) 385-399. How can complex systems be used in engineering?
by Mark S. Miller and K. Eric Drexler (in The Ecology of Computation,
Bernardo Huberman (ed.) Elsevier Science Publishers/North-Holland, 1988).
About how markets and evolution can be applied in computation.
and Genetic Methods in Stochastic Design by J. Storrs Hall. How market-like
models can be used in design.
thoughts on multi-agent systems and "hyper-economy" by Alexander
study of signification in living systems.
resources for Internet-based computing.
Limiting the Evolution of Replicators. Evolution
is not always desirable, and under some circumstances it might be needed
to prevent replicating systems from evolving.
Complexity Based Technology
Most of current research turn towards evolutionary
algorithms, using evolution to breed computer programs to solve various
tasks (this includes genetic
systems and evolution
strategies). It appears very likely that these methods will eventually
be used in the design and function of a wide variety of devices.
Artificial Self-Replication Home Page by Moshe Sipper. Links, events
and papers on self-replication.
Build Thyself by Thomas Bass (article from Discover, October 1995).
About how self-replicating robots could be used for very large projects.
Life" Algorithms as a Mechanism for Modeling Self-Assembling/Self-Organizing
Molecular Components and Substrates by Charles Ostman. How self-organizing
structures could be developed.
Machines by Cosma
Shalizi. How can evolution be useful?
of Evolutionary Design by Computers by Peter Bentley. Different ways
computers can perform evolutionary design.
Evolution by Adrian Thompson.
Controlling Smart Matter
by Tad Hogg and Bernardo A. Huberman. Designing micromechanical systems
that control the behavior of "smart matter".
& Evolutionstechnik (in German). Various applications of evolutionary
of Albia. (New Scientist 9 May 1998). About the creatures in CyberLife's
game Creatures, which involves
both evolution and reinforcement learning.
Complex and Adaptive
Systems Information. Lots of resources about complexity.
Semi-annotated Artificial Life Bibliography of On-line Publications
by Ezequiel A Di Paolo.
Complexity and Philosophy Page of Hans-Cees A.M. Speel. The links
between evolution, memetics, philosophy
The Complexity &
Artificial Life Research Concept for Self-Organizing Systems (CALResCo
algorithms in Yahoo
Web Virtual Library of Complex Systems.
Kevin Kelly, Out
Relevant newsgroup: comp.ai.alife,