The Road to Posthumanity

One step at a time...

A small sketch of possible methods to expand our capacity, from the present state to a posthuman state. Brackets mark hyperlinked comments with further links.


Near Future

Deeper integration of different methods to a "transhuman synergy". Human capabilities beyond current possibility.

Mid-Term Future

Integration of different kinds of systems; the meaning of "human" becomes blurred.

Long-Term Future


It is impossible to predict what and when entries will become viable or even possible, although it is possible to guess based on current knowledge. They might appear in a different order, and unexpected new developments are bound to occur. The large questions are social, political and economical rather than technological.


Some of the risks and problems that may complicate things:

References and Further Links

[1] Exists, in most cases proven and easy to use. See for example psychological tricks and intelligence amplification.

[2] Their efficiency is debatable, but it is possible to optimize brain chemistry, for example by regulating food intake. Currently nootropic drugs are probably more a complement to other mental techniques.

[3] More research is needed to learn how to use them safely and efficiently.

[4] Known for millennia, but in definite need of improvement. See "The Hedonistic Imperative" by David Pearce for an overview and a sketch of a posthuman mental state.

[5] Already exists, and are under fast development. Better user interfaces are however needed. See Information Management.

[6] Traditional preventative care strives to reduce or avoid various diseases and states of unhealth, and is mostly very tried and tested. Calorie restriction and similar more radical methods are not yet well tested on humans, but appear to be promising.

[7] Speculative, but has some support from current research. The mechanisms of aging are in the process of being understood. See the Life Extension Page

[8] Many genetic changes can be done today, while others require a deeper understanding of our genetics, biochemistry and psychology. The main problems are social/ethical rather than scientific. See the Genetic Modifications Page.

[9] Simple neural interfaces are under development. It is too early to tell how useful (if at all) they will become, but I think we will see a synergy with genetics, computer science, medicine and possibly nanotechnology. Bionic implants will begin as prothestics, until they become so useful, easily implanted and easy to learn to use that they can compete with external systems. See the bionics section

[10] There is a lot of research going on about intelligent agents, various kinds of immersive systems (augmented reality, virtual reality) and other adaptive tools (like augmented memory). See Enhanced Reality.

[11] See the Nanotechnology page at Xerox for a good introduction.

[12] See The Mind Uploading Home Page.

[13] See Distributed intelligence

[14] Originally coined by Vernor Vinge, discussed at the Singularity Page

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