Timescales in open, flat and very large closed universes

Based on table 10.2 in The Anthropic Cosmological Principle by John D. Barrow and Frank J. Tipler.

(Some of these events preclude others; e.g. if protons decay, there will be no Hawking decay of matter later)

5*10^9 years Sun leaves main sequence
10^11 Large clusters evaporate galaxies
10^12 Stars cease to form; all massive stars have become either neutron stars or black holes
10^14 Longest lived stars use all their fuel and become white dwarfs
10^17 White dwarfs cool to black dwarfs at 5 K. Proton decay (if any) will keep dwarfs at this temperature for 10^30 years.
10^19 Dead stars evaporate from galaxies (90-99% of all stars will evaporate; 1-10% will collect in galactic centers to form gigantic black holes)
10^19 Neutron stars cool to 100 degrees K
10^20 Orbits of planets decay via gravitational radiation
10^23 Dead stars evaporate from galactic clusters (Black dwarfs are at 5 degrees K and neutron stars at 100 degrees K due to proteon decay; background radiation has cooled to 10^-13 degrees K)
  At this stage matter consists of about 90% dead stars, 9% black holes and 1% atomic hydrogen and helium.
10^31 Protons decay (according to SU(5) GUT)
10^32 Dead stars evaporate via proton decay (GUT)
10^34 All carbon-based lifeforms become extinct (due to lack of atoms)
  At this stage most matter in the universe is in the form of e+, e-, ~v, v, gamma.
10^65 Ordinary matter liquifies due to quantum tunneling
10^66 Solar mass black holes evaporate via Hawking process
10^73 In flat and closed universes, most e+ and e- form positronium (in open universe most e+ and e- remain free)
10^99 Galactic mass black holes (10^11 M(sol)) evaporate via Hawking process
10^117 In flat and closed universes, positronium decays via cascade releasing 10^22 photons
10^117 Supercluster mass black holes (10^17 M(sol)) evaporate via Hawking process
10^122 Protons decay via Hawking process
10^1500 If ordinary matter survives decay via GUTs or Hawking process, it decays into iron
10^10^26 All iron collapses into black holes

Timescales of a small closed universe near the final singularity

After Table 10.1. The closed universe is assumed to begin to contract less than 10^11 years after the initial singularity.

Event Universal Scale Factor R(t)/R(now) Temperature (K)
Galaxies merge 10^-2 300
Sky as bright as the Sun's surface 10^-3 3000
Sky as hot as stellar cores; stars explode 10^-6 3*10^6
Nuclei desintegrate into neutrons and protons 10^-9 3*10^9
Protons and neutrons become free quarks 10^-12 3*10^12

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Anders Sandberg / asa@nada.kth.se