Mental and physical arousal are different but closely linked; an increase or decrease in one usually causes the corresponding change in the other.
In the brain noradrenergic and cholinergic activations systems of the brainstem.
noradrenaline - clarity, readiness
In the body arousal is mainly controlled though the brain's action through the sympathic nervous system, which also causes the release of adrenaline.
At higher levels of arousal we tend to use fast, well learned strategies instead of searching for new possibilities.
Reflectiveness The Easterbrook Hypothesis (1959) Arousal focuses attention to fewer cue in the environment However, different types of arousal have differential effects on memory (Eysenck 1982, 1984) High arousal due to incentives increases capacity/efficiency of STM * High arousal due to noise or anxiety decreases capacity/efficiency of STM but for LTM: * incentives have no effect * noise facilitates retrieval * anxiety hinders retrieval Humphreys-Revelle model (1) arousal facilitates attention (2) arousal facilitates long term memory storage (3) arousal hinders immediate (working) memory ii) Anderson-Revelle model (1) beneficial effects of energetic arousal (2) detrimental effects of tense arousal
Physical exertion increase metabolism
Put people under performance pressure/